I am posting my literature review. It hasn’t been an easy couple days for me because we were pounded with snow at my house. I only just got my internet back on at 8 pm tonight. The plow just went by about five minutes ago, so I should be able to get into town tomorrow. Yay!
(Note: I have edited my post to include my citations in my Literature Review 09/27/15)
Successful students have resilience, but it is not something they have when they are born (pbs.org, n.d.). The key question to building resilience in students is about how much to allow them to struggle. Research tells us that resilience allows people to cope with struggles, problems, and setbacks (Cherry, n.d.). People can become overwhelmed with expectations and daily life. However, they can learn to become more resilient if they learn how to manage stress and meet problems head on, they are able to “bounce back” (Doll, Brehm, & Zucker, 2014). Resilient people are often aware of causes of their emotions and understand that life has setbacks. They know that they have control over their actions and own the positive or negative effects of their chosen actions. They can problem solve and know where to look for help if they need it (American Psychological Association, n.d.). People can learn to be resilient over time. Many factors lead to being resilient. Some of theses factors include being a part of supportive relationships, good self-esteem, belief in your abilities, successful management of impulses, willingness to ask for help, and refusing to be a victim (American Psychological Association, n.d.).
Children look to both parents and teachers to help build their resilience skills (Dwyer, 2013). There are common elements for teachers to think about in regards to student resiliency. Teachers should recognize that they do not have a role in some of the core needs, but students also are not given a choice on adhering to the common elements. For example, resilient students get plenty of sleep, eat healthy, and exercise regularly (Child Trends, 2013). The classroom teacher does not have a say in what time parents put children to bed or what they choose to feed them. However, teachers can help student build resilience by discussing the concept of resilience with students, nurturing student strengths, teach goal setting and planning strategies, reduce student competitiveness, use peer teaching methods, connect with the families of students, focus on good behavior, praise the effort made my students, and let students know that you have high expectations (Meichenbaum, n.d.). It is very important for teachers to allow students to get frustrated and work through those frustrations (Cleaver, 2015). Students need to be allowed to make mistakes and learn from them.
There are many ideas of what to use to measure resiliency. Many measures have been developed and are available for researchers to use, but are focused towards children over the age of ten (Hall, 2010). However, both The Resilience Research Centre and the Devereux Foundation have developed measures that can be used to determine resilience in younger children. The Resilience Research Centre has a free child version of the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM) specifically for children between the ages of five and nine (Resilience Research Centre, n.d.). The Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA) costs $120 to purchase the kit (Devereux Center for Resilient Children, n.d.). The CYRM allows students to inventory themselves using smiley, straight, and frowning faces. The inventory focuses on how they perceive their relationships and abilities (Resilience Research Centre, n.d.). The DESSA has parents or teachers assess each child using a behavior scale that only focuses on positive behavior (Devereux Center for Resilient Children, n.d.). Either of these assessments would give a good starting baseline to determine how much resiliency a student currently has and they could be assessed again at a later date to measure growth in resiliency. However, neither inventory allows a teacher measure resiliency while a student is completing a difficult task.
Technology is very engaging to students and can be used to boost resiliency when it introduces new concepts and challenges, like Chibitronics. Chibitronics are small circuit stickers that have a LED light (Hoopes, 2014). Students learn about how circuits work by using adhesive copper tape to light up the LED light. The tape is very thin and flimsy. It can be very frustrating to use, especially for young students. However, the payoff is that the lights can be used on just about anything, from artwork to clothing (Chibitronics, n.d.). Learning and working with new things can often be uncomfortable for students, which is part of the reason that resilience is an important skill for students (Couros, 2015). New technology allows teachers to help students build their resiliency skills.
American Psychological Association. (n.d.). The Road to Resilience. Retrieved September 23, 2015, from American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/road-resilience.aspx
Cherry, K. (n.d.). What Is Resilience? Retrieved September 23, 2015, from About Education: http://psychology.about.com/od/crisiscounseling/a/resilience.htm
Chibitronics. (n.d.). Craft. Retrieved September 26, 2015, from Chibitronics: http://chibitronics.com/craft-guide/
Child Trends. (2013, October 30). What Can Schools Do to Build Resilience In Their Students. Retrieved September 24, 2015, from Child Trends: http://www.childtrends.org/what-can-schools-do-to-build-resilience-in-their-students/
Cleaver, S. (2015, April 30). 8 Ways to Help Your Students Build Resiliency. Retrieved September 26, 2015, from We Are Teachers: http://www.weareteachers.com/blogs/post/2015/04/30/8-ways-to-help-your-students-build-resiliency
Couros, G. (2015, July 15). Resilience and Innovation in Education. Retrieved September 24, 2015, from The Principal of Change: http://georgecouros.ca/blog/archives/5412
Devereux Center for Resilient Children. (n.d.). The Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA) Kit. Retrieved September 26, 2015, from Devereux Center for Resilient Children: http://www.centerforresilientchildren.org/school-age/assessments-resources/the-devereux-student-strengths-assessment-dessa-kit/
Doll, B., Brehm, K., & Zucker, S. (2014). Resilient Classrooms, Second Edition: Creating Healthy Environments for Learning. New York: The Guilford Press.
Dwyer, K. (2013, October 1). Building resilience in classrooms and schools. Retrieved September 24, 2015, from Children’s Mental Health Network: http://www.cmhnetwork.org/media-center/morning-zen/building-resilient-in-classrooms-and-schools
Hall, D. K. (2010, November 17). Compendium of Selected Resilience and Related Measures for Children and Youth. Retrieved September 26, 2015, from Reaching In Reaching Out: http://www.reachinginreachingout.com/documents/appendixe-annotatedcompendiumofresiliencemeasures-nov17-10copyright.pdf
Hoopes, H. (2014, January 22). Chibitronics connects circuits with stickers for entertaining electronic education. Retrieved September 26, 2015, from Gizmag: http://www.gizmag.com/chibitronics-circuit-stickers/30558/
Meichenbaum, Donald (n.d.). How Educators Can Nurture Resilience In High-Risk Children and Their Families. Retrieved September 24, 2015, from TeachSafeSchools.org: http://www.teachsafeschools.org/Resilience.pdf
pbs.org. (n.d.). What is Resilience. Retrieved September 23, 2015, from This Emotional Life: http://www.pbs.org/thisemotionallife/topic/resilience/what-resilience
Resilience Research Centre. (n.d.). Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM). Retrieved September 26, 2015, from Resilience Research Centre: http://www.resilienceproject.org/research/resources/tools/33-the-child-and-youth-resilience-measure-cyrm